How to reduce the chance of children developing eating disorders
The very word ‘eating disorder’ is enough to strike fear in most parents. Latest estimates suggest that 1.25 million people have an eating disorder and that adolescence is the most likely time for this to develop.
At the heart of all eating disorders is an unhealthy attitude to food. The most common eating disorders are:
- Anorexia Nervosa – characterised by not eating enough and often excessive exercising
- Bulimia Nervosa – overeating followed by vomiting and laxatives in order not to gain weight
- Binge Eating Disorder – compulsive overeating that feels out of control
There are varying degrees of gravity for all of these and it is not always easy to determine when your child ‘tips over’ from healthy eating to problem eating, and then into a full- blown eating disorder. The bottom line is, if you feel that food is dominating your child’s life, your best action is to seek treatment, as early intervention gives the best chance of recovery.
Why does someone get an eating disorder?
There is no one over-riding cause to why someone develops an eating disorder; there is a combination of influences such as genetics, family experiences and culture. Parents don’t give their children an eating disorder, but there is much they can do to help reduce the chances of their children developing one.
What can parents do?
Parents’ main role is to create a positive home environment by:
- Setting the right goals – ensure that the aspirations that you have for your child are not based on appearance and that you do not give the impression that you will love them more if ‘only they ate less’. This includes paying more attention to what they say and do rather than what they look like.
- Speaking your mind – we are all exposed to some pretty toxic ideas about body image. This particularly applies to social media which bombards us with images that can distort our children’s attitude to body size. We need to educate our children that there is no such thing as the perfect body and that prejudice against people who are overweight is wrong. Too much time spent trying to achieve unattainable beauty is only going to lead to feelings of failure and is limiting your child’s development in more meaningful areas. Recent research showed that an intervention for women with eating disorders, that encouraged them to criticise negative media images that associated appearance with self-worth, significantly reduced their negative feelings about themselves.
- Being comfortable with your own body shape – the more complete you are as parents with your own body, irrespective of size – the less likely you are to imply that having a less than ideal body shape is something to feel ashamed about.
- Talking about feelings – eating disorders are a way of coping with difficult feelings, so encourage children to understand and express their emotions rather than placate them with food. This will give you an opportunity to teach them strategies to use when they are feeling frustrated, angry or sad. For example, taking a deep breath, talking the issue through with an adult, or even asking for a hug.
- Being a good role model – you are their biggest influence. If you pick at your food, criticise your own body and are constantly on a diet, your children will copy these unhelpful behaviours.
- Not putting them on a diet – dieting rarely works and often affects self-esteem. Most eating disorders start with a diet. There can also be loads of other health implications such as stunted growth, osteoporosis and delayed puberty.
- Keeping children a healthy weight – overweight teenagers have a much higher risk of developing an eating disorder, but often its symptoms go unnoticed because they are masked by being overweight.
- Exercising for the right reasons – exercise is an important part of good health, but if you are spending hours in the gym each day trying to get the ‘perfect’ body then this will give children the wrong messages.
- Boosting their self-esteem – this is probably the most important factor that protects children from developing an eating disorder. One of the best ways to do this is by offering children choices, particularly as eating disorders often develop as a way of trying to take control of their lives. Try offering them an array of healthy foods and let them serve themselves. Even better get them involved in cooking healthy food.
Not only will these behaviours help to reduce the chances of your children developing an eating disorder but they are also great ways for maintaining a healthy attitude to weight and food for all the family.
Article by Tracey Bennett, specialist in Obesity & Weight Management